⇓ Pdf Salt online ⇸ ePUB By Mark Kurlansky ∮ ⇓ Pdf Salt online ⇸ ePUB By Mark Kurlansky ∮ Very early in his book, Kurlansky refers to an essay by the psychoanalyst Ernest Jones on man s obsession with salt Whether or not man, in general, has an obsession with salt may be debatable That one man in particular Mark Kurlansky has, is made than clear by this unusual and enjoyable book He seems to have set out to put between the covers of one volume every single fact about the history of man s relationship with salt that he could unearth How the Ancient Greeks salted their tuna Why the Mayans used salt as a medicine in healing rituals The story of the great salt merchants of China The French tax on salt and how its injustice contributed to the French Revolution Why Gandhi chose salt as a symbol of the Raj s oppression Kurlansky ranges through the centuries and across the world to tell the story of salt As a prize winning food writer he is particularly good on the ways salt has shaped our eating habits and once again, as in his earlier book Cod, he seasons his text with recipes he has come across in his research In the course of 450 pages the reader may occasionally feel that here is a book that tells one about salt than one wants to know but, for most of those pages, Kurlansky s enthusiasm, knowledge and style create an engrossing tale Nick RennisonOnce I stood on the bank of a rice paddy in rural Sichuan Province, and a lean and aging Chinese peasant, wearing a faded forty year old blue jacket issued by the Mao government in the early years of the Revolution, stood knee deep in water and apropos of absolutely nothing shouted defiantly at me, We Chinese invented many things The Chinese are proud of their inventions All Chinese leaders, including Mao Zedong, sooner or later give a speech listing the many Chinese firsts Though rural China these days seems in need of a new round of inventions, it is irrefutably true that the Chinese originated many of the pivotal creations of history, including papermaking, printing, gunpowder, and the compass. China is the oldest literate society still in existence, and its 4,000 years of written history begin as a history of inventions It is no longer clear when legends were made into men and when living historic figures were turned into legends Chinese history starts in the same manner as Old Testament history In the Book of Genesis, first come the legends, the story of the Creation, mythical figures such as Adam and Eve and Noah, generations of people who may or may not have lived, and gradually the generations are followed to Abraham, the beginning of documented Hebrew history. In Chinese history, first was Pangu, the creator, who made humans from parasites on his body He died but was followed by wise rulers, who invented the things that made China the first civilization.Fuxi was first to domesticate animals Apparently an enthusiast for domesticity, he is also credited with inventing marriage Next came Shennong, who invented medicine, agriculture, and trade He is credited with the plow and the hoe Then came Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who invented writing, the bow and arrow, the cart, and ceramics Several centuries after Huangdi came Emperor Yao, a wise ruler who passed over his unqualified son and named a modest sage, Shun, his successor Shun chose his minister, Yu, to succeed him In 2205 B.C., according to tradition, Yu founded the Xia dynasty, and this dynasty, which lasted until 1766 B.C., enters into documented history. Chinese salt history begins with the mythical Huangdi, who invented writing, weaponry, and transportation According to the legends, he also had the distinction of presiding over the first war ever fought over salt. One of the earliest verifiable saltworks in prehistoric China was in the northern province of Shanxi In this arid region of dry yellow earth and desert mountains is a lake of salty water, Lake Yuncheng This area was known for constant warfare, and all of the wars were over control of the lake Chinese historians are certain that by 6000 B.C., each year, when the lake s waters evaporated in the summer sun, people harvested the square crystals on the surface of the water, a system the Chinese referred to as dragging and gathering Human bones found around the lake have been dated much earlier, and some historians speculate that these inhabitants may also have gathered salt from the lake. The earliest written record of salt production in China dates to around 800 B.C and tells of production and trade of sea salt a millennium before, during the Xia dynasty It is not known if the techniques described in this account were actually used during the Xia dynasty, but they were considered old ways by the time of this account, which describes putting ocean water in clay vessels and boiling it until reduced to pots of salt crystals This was the technique that was spread through southern Europe by the Roman Empire, 1,000 years after the Chinese account was written. About 1000 B.C., iron first came into use in China, though the first evidence of it being used in salt making is not until 450 B.C by a man named Yi Dun According to a passage written in 129 B.C., Yi Dun rose to prominence by producing salt in pans Yi Dun is believed to have made salt by boiling brine in iron pans, an innovation which would become one of the leading techniques for salt making for the next 2,000 years The legend says that he worked with an ironmaster named Guo Zong and was also friendly with an enterprising wealthy bureaucrat named Fan Li Fan Li is credited with inventing fish farming, which for centuries after was associated with salt producing areas The Chinese, like later Europeans, saw that salt and fish were partners Many Chinese, including Mencius, the famous Confucian thinker who lived from 372 to 289 B.C., were said to have worked selling both fish and salt. Throughout the long history of China, sprinkling salt directly on food has been a rarity Usually it has been added during cooking by means of various condimentssalt based sauces and pastes The usual explanation is that salt was expensive and it was stretched by these condiments A recurring idea throughout the ancient world from the Mediterranean to Southeast Asia, fish fermented in salt was one of the most popular salt condiments in ancient China It was called jiang But in China soybeans were added to ferment with the fish, and in time the fish was dropped altogether from the recipe and jiang became jiangyou, or, as it is called in the West, soy sauce. Soy is a legume that produces beans, two or three in a two inch long furry pod The beans can be yellow, green, brown, purple, black, or spotted, and Chinese cooking makes a great distinction among these varieties Jiangyou is made from yellow beans, but other types are also fermented with salt to produce different pastes and condiments In China, the earliest written mention of soy is in the sixth century B.C., describing the plant as a 700 year old crop from the north Soy was brought to Japan from China in the sixth century A.D by Chinese Buddhist missionaries Both the religion and the bean were successfully implanted But the Japanese did not make soy sauce until the tenth century Once they did learn, they called it shoyu and industrialized it and sold it around the world. Though jiangyou and shoyu are pronounced very differently and appear to be very different words in Western writing, the two words are written with the same character in Japanese and Chinese Mao s 1950s literacy campaign simplified the language to some 40,000 characters, but a pre Mao character for the soy plant, su, depicts little roots at the bottom which revive the soil Soy puts nutrients back into the soil and can restore fields that have been exhausted by other crops The bean is so nutritious that a person could be sustained for a considerable period on nothing but water, soy, and salt. The process by which the Chinese, and later the Japanese, fermented beans in earthen pots is today known as lactic acid fermentation, or, in common jargon, pickling Optimum lactic fermentation takes place between sixty four and seventy one degrees Fahrenheit, which in most of the world is an easily achieved environment. As vegetables begin to rot, the sugars break down and produce lactic acid, which serves as a preservative Theoretically, pickling can be accomplished without salt, but the carbohydrates and proteins in the vegetables tend to putrefy too quickly to be saved by the emerging lactic acid Without salt, yeast forms, and the fermentation process leads to alcohol rather than pickles. Between.8 and 1.5 percent of the vegetable s weight in salt holds off the rotting process until the lactic acid can take over Excluding oxygen, either by sealing the jar or, usually, by weighting the vegetables so that they remain immersed in liquid, is necessary for successful lactic fermentation. The ancient Chinese pickled in earthen jars, which caused a white film called kahm yeast, harmless but unpleasant tasting, to form on the top Every two weeks the cloth, board, and stone weighting the vegetables had to be washed or even boiled to remove the film This added work is why pickling in earthen jars has not remained popular. In Sichuan, pickled vegetables are still a staple They are served with rice, which is never salted The salty vegetables contrast pleasantly with the blandness of the warm but unseasoned rice gruel that is a common breakfast food In effect, the pickles are salting the rice. South of the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, lies Zigong, a hilly provincial salt town that grew into a city because of its preponderance of brine wells The crowded, narrow, downhill open air market in the center of town continues to sell salt and special pickling jars for the two local specialties, paocai and zhacai A woman at the market who sold the glass pickling jars offered this recipe for paocai Fill the jar two thirds with brine Add whatever vegetables you like and whatever spice you like, cover, and the vegetables are ready in two days The spices added are usually hot red Sichuan peppers or ginger, a perennial herb of Indian origin, known to the Chinese since ancient times The red pepper, today a central ingredient of Sichuan cooking, did not arrive until the sixteenth century, carried to Europe by Columbus, to India by the Portuguese, and to China by either the Indians, Portuguese, Andalusians, or Basques. Paocai that is eaten in two days is obviously about flavor than preserving After two days the vegetables are still very crisp, and the salt maintains, even brightens, the color Zhacai is made with salt instead of brine, alternating layers of vegetables with layers of salt crystals In time a brine is formed from the juices the salt pulls out of the vegetables When a peasant has a baby girl, the family puts up a vegetable every year and gives the jars to her when she s married This shows how long zhacai is kept before eating The original medieval idea was to marry her after twelve or fifteen jars Today it usually takes a few vegetables. 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    • Format Kindle
    • Salt
    • Mark Kurlansky
    • Anglais
    • 19 June 2016
    • 502 pages

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